ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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The pH dependence of the zeta potential is investigated with the background electrolyte of 1 mM KCl solution. After sinking, the sample is then allowed to remain submerged in water for 10 s. Need more than one copy?
Thus, depending on the hydroentangling process parameters and conditions [ 1 – 3 ], this approach increases hydrophobicity of the greige cotton nonwoven compared to an equivalent scoured and bleached cotton nonwoven product.
There is little data on the presence of waxes and pectin in comber noils and gin motes, so a relative comparison of cotton cuticle contributions is not possible. The swelling behavior of the incontinence products is measured using the Anton Paar analyzer with the cylindrical cell template. Moisture determinations The water content results via Karl Fischer titration KFTfollowing ASTMtrack the moisture results based on the Kett moisture determination balance that utilizes an infrared lamp Table 3.
In addition, as discussed below, the smaller cellulose crystallite size of the gin motes is consistent with this and plays a role at a molecular level in the increased water absorption capacity observed in the cotton by-product nonwovens. It further demonstrates the merit of focusing on material construction and analysis of fiber surface properties with novel by-product fibers at solid-liquid interfaces and the value of considering the molecular factors that influence properties of wettability and fluid transport as they exist in topsheet and layer components useful in absorbent prototypes, i.
The resulting hydroentangled fabric was dried using a meter-wide, gas-fired drum dryer and wound onto a cardboard tube to form a compact fabric roll. We have no amendments or corrections for this standard.
ASTM D – 01 Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn )
UltraClean cotton, which is a form of greige cotton [ 2 ], was separately combined with the cotton gin motes and comber noils, whereupon the blends were carded, crosslapped, and subjected to light needle punching prior to their separate hydroentanglement at 50 bar wet-out water pressure and bar hydroentangling water pressure. The Segal Crystallinity Index values arise almost completely from the overlap of the wide observed peaks Conclusion This study has shown that the ability of cotton gin mote fibers to modulate swelling and moisture uptake is beneficial in absorbent products.
Embed this code snippet in the HTML of your website to show this chapter. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. You may delete a document from your Alert Profile at any time. This standard is not included in any packages. This chapter examines the electrokinetic properties of hydroentangled nonwoven materials made by blending clean greige cotton lint with greige cotton by-product fibers with a view to understanding the similarities the materials possess.
Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn 2009)
In order to determine the water content of cotton fibers via Karl Fischer titration KFTfiber asym must be conditioned to standard testing conditions, Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, USA, using the cylindrical cell developed aastm the measurement of fibrous samples. Depending on the end-use application, a hydroentangled nonwoven fabric made by using a blend of cotton mote fibers and greige bleach-less cleaned cotton lint gave optimal swelling and reasonably good moisture uptake.
More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. In addition, the small range of KFT values of the cellulosic blends is due to the specificity of KFT to water compared to the weight loss as measured with the Kett infrared heating method.
The blended nonwoven materials possess absorbent properties characterized by similar moisture uptake 7. However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention based on innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ].
As the voice of the U. The calculated X-ray diffraction pattern is shown in Figure 3.
X-ray powder diffraction patterns of comber noil, gin motes, and UltraClean cotton. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Built by scientists, for scientists. A quantity of cotton gin mote sstm was also obtained from T. Thus, the increased swelling due to increasing the ratio of UC may be a result of an additive contribution of waxes from the greige cotton, which are d117 to contribute hydrophobicity to the fiber surface analogous to more hydrophobic fibers like polyester.
Prior to KFT testing v1117 samples, blank vials were used for quality control measures. Absorbency characteristics of the various hydroentangled sstm. The crystallinity, electrokinetic, and water binding properties of the nonwoven by-product materials are discussed in the context of the molecular features water, cellulose, and greige cotton components that enhance potential uses as absorbent nonwoven end-use products.
The Scherrer formula was used to convert the peak width at half maximum pwhm to crystallite sizes perpendicular to the large peak with a shape constant of 1.
The basket is removed and allowed to drain for 10 s, and the sample is weighed to determine its water content. You can download and open this file to your own computer d1117 DRM prevents opening this file on another computer, including a networked server. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.
Additionally, the polyester PES fibers had not melted. From this state, further water sorption then assumes the character of a capillary-like condensation and has been characterized as free water, i.
The amphiphilic surface character in nonwoven greige cotton, which is a combination of the polarity balance between the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic elements of the cotton material, is suitable for the application to the material layer components of incontinence absorbent products and wipes [ 10 ]. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the individual gin motes, comber noils, and greige cotton UCC are shown in Figure 4.
August 24th Published: Nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned greige cotton lint separately blended with comber noils and ginning motes at The Kett measures moisture weight loss after drying under a large infrared heat lamp which, minimizes scorching. Future studies will focus on specific functional applications for incontinence hygiene and wound care nonwovens. The enclosed samples were then placed into mason jars that had been acclimated in the conditioned lab. This affords an economical source of highly cleaned absorbent greige cotton nonwovens with the retention of properties inherent to the traditional cotton fabrics that generally require costly and eco-sensitive chemical scouring and bleaching processes.